increased social inclusion in the host country
Finally, the study authors aimed to disentangle the direction of effects between state self-esteem and social inclusion by investigating whether social inclusion results in changes in state self-esteem over time and/or whether state self-esteem predicts changes in social inclusion. State self-esteem was found to predict increases in social inclusion in the host country, while taking into account the stability of social inclusion (B 0.12, p .01). Even after controlling for mastery of exchange challenges and self-rated language proficiency, cross-lagged effects of social inclusion on changes in state self-esteem, and vice versa, remained significant, decreasing the regression coefficients by only 0.01. Summing up, transactional longitudinal effects were found between social inclusion and state self-esteem.
Beschreibung der Aktivität
international student exchange
The aim of the present study was to shed light on the macro- and microprocesses of self-esteem development in exchange students as a result of participating in an international exchange year. In the present study, the study authors examined the association between the development of state and trait self-esteem and the mechanisms underlying this association in the context of international student exchange.
16,0 years (mean)
teilnehmende Kinder und Jugendliche
Evaluierung der Aktivität
Participants were part of the Mobility and Personality Development Study. The sample consisted of German high school students who spent an exchange year in different countries outside Germany (exchange condition) and students who stayed in Germany during this year (control condition). We measured trait self-esteem prior to the exchange, immediately afterward, and 1 year later, and we collected nine monthly waves of state self-esteem and feelings of social inclusion in the host country while the students were abroad. In addition, a control group of high school students who were not engaging in an exchange year were asked to complete trait self-esteem measures parallel to the first and second measures in the exchange group.
Trait self-esteem; State self-esteem; Social inclusion; Mastery of exchange challenges; Self-perceived language proficiency.
Trait self-esteem was measured using the Multidimensional Self-Esteem Scale (MSES), consisting of 32 items (e.g., “Do you take a positive attitude toward yourself?”); State self-esteem (SSE) was measured using the 15-item German language version of the State Self-Esteem scale, items include e.g., “I feel good about myself”; Participants rated their social inclusion on six items (“All in all there are not many people here that really like me”; “On the weekends I am frequently out with friends”; “I have people outside of my host family I can rely on”; “I have friends around me”; “Other people invite me to leisure time activities”; “Getting to know peers is difficult for me”); Mastery of exchange challenges: Three items (“I can deal well with difficulties in my host family”; “I am dealing well with the new culture”; “I can always find a solution for problems in school”); Language proficiency: Three items (“I am doing fine with the new language”; “Even in difficult cases I always know how to communicate in the new language”; “I like using the new language”).
MSES: 7-point scale (1 strongly disagree, 7 strongly agree); SSE: 5-point rating scale (1 strongly disagree, 5 strongly agree); Social inclusion: 6-point scale (1 strongly disagree, 6 strongly agree); Mastery of exchange challenges: 6-point scale (1 strongly disagree, 6 strongly agree); Self-perceived language proficiency: 6-point scale (1 strongly disagree, 6 strongly agree).
876 German high school students control group of high school students who stayed in Germany (N 714)
3 waves of trait self-esteem data (shortly before they departed, immediately after return, and 1 year later); control group of high school students who stayed in Germany provided 2 waves of trait self-esteem data
Huttman, Roos/ Nestler, Steffen/ Wagner, Jenny/ Egloff, Boris (2015): Wherever I May Roam: Processes of Self-Esteem Development From Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood in the Context of International Student Exchange . Journal of Personality and Social Psychologiy. Vol 108. No. 5, S. 767-783. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pspp0000015