improvement in interpersonal relationships after the intervention
There were significant differences by group at the pre-test (t (57)54.09, p,.001): the Jewish experimental group expressed more positive attitudes than the control group. At the post-test, there were significant differences between the groups (t (57)53.75, p,.01): the experimental group showed more positive interpersonal relationships attitudes than the control group. Among the Arab students, there were significant differences by time in the experimental group (t (27)55.56, p,.001): the attitudes were more positive at the post-test than at the pre-test. There were significant differences also in the control group (t (27)52.96, p,.05): the attitudes were more positive at the post-test than at the pre-test. There were also significant differences between groups (t (56)54.05, p,.001): at the pre-test, the attitudes of the experimental group were more positive than the attitudes in the control group. At the post-test, there were significant differences between groups as well (t (56)57.77, p,.001): the experimental group revealed more positive attitudes regarding interpersonal relationships than the control group. In other words, there was an improvement in interpersonal relationships after the intervention.
Beschreibung der Aktivität
educational program for coexistence called ‘Children Teach Children’ (CTC)
The program aimed to educate Jewish and Arab children in Israel for tolerance and coexistence. The main objective of the two-year CTC is to help students and teachers develop the skills required to cope with the Jewish–Arab conflict in Israel by means of a direct program in which Arab and Jewish participants have a unique opportunity to engage in dialogue with the other side in a supportive environment that facilitates personal change and growth.
The time framework for the program in each class is two hours every week for a period of two study years.
age level (junior high school, seventh grade)
teilnehmende Kinder und Jugendliche
Evaluierung der Aktivität
Quantitative Fragebogenerhebung (schriftlich/offline), Qualitative Interviewbefragungen (persönlich)
A pre-post-test comparison group design was used. Two instruments representing two methodologies were used in the study. Data were gathered both using a quantitative close-ended questionnaire and a structured interview. The quantitative questionnaire (The Children Teach Children Questionnaire, CTCQ) was an attitudes questionnaire that was composed for this study.
The CTCQ consisted of four subscales containing a total of 25 attitude statements. Three subscales examined the main content areas of the program in the first year and they reflected the aims of the intervention: (a) awareness of the complexity of identity ; (b) stereotypes and prejudices; (c) interpersonal relationships. The questionnaire also contained a fourth subscale that examined the students’ attitudes toward the program. The second instrument was qualitative. It was an interview protocol prepared for interviewing the four coordinator–teachers. The interview was structured and contained two parts: one for the beginning of the year (CTCIb), and the other for the end of the year (CTCIe).
(a) Seven items; for example: ‘The Jewish/Arab students are varied and diverse’; (b) Seven items; for example: ‘Jewish/Arab are racists’; (c ) Seven items; for example: ‘There is a relationship of trust between me and the students of the other group’; Fourth scale: Four items; for example: ‘I think that the CTC program is a waste of time. The CTCIb contained six questions and its purpose was to examine the teachers’ expectations from the process at the beginning of the year (For example: ‘What are your expectations of the first year of the program’s implementation?’). The CTCIe consisted of four additional questions aimed to validate and confront the teachers with the students’ answers and with their own expectations at the end of the year (For example: ‘What is your opinion concerning the program’s achievements in the four content areas examined among students?’).
The students were asked to rate each item using a Likert-type four-point scale from ‘1’ (completely disagree) to ‘4’ (very much agree).
117 students The students belonged to four seventh-grade classes (two Jewish and two Arab classes). The experimental group included 59 students from two classes (one Jewish and one Arab class). The control group included 58 students from both Jewish and Arab classes. Each class is divided into two groups (12–16 students in each group)